Ghana hold the advantage to qualify to the 2013 African Youth Championship finals after beating Morocco 4-1 on Sunday in the final round first leg tie.The Black Satellites took the lead through South Africa-based winger Frank Sarfo Gyamfi who finished off a through pass from Moses Odjer in the 31st minute.But the Atlas Cubs came back from the break revitalized and levelled the scoring two minutes into play.Striker Chibi Mohammed made use of a counter-attack to beat Ghana goalkeeper Felix Annan.Seven minutes later, Ghana captain Lawrence Lartey headed home from a Derrick Mensah corner to give the Satellites the lead.Substitute Frank Acheampong was at the right place to head in the third goal on 58 minutes after a goal bound shot deflected off the body of a Moroccan. On the 90th minute mark, the Thailand-based player rounded the Moroccan goalkeeper after a delicious counter-attack to seal the win for the 2009 Africa and World champions.Ghana travel to Rabat in a fortnight time for the second leg tie.
UPDATED: A woman has been killed following a serious road traffic accident in Newtowncunningham this afternoon.The accident happened just after 3.30pm on the main Letterkenny to Newowncunningham Road at the townland of Ardee.Gardai have confirmed that one person, a woman in her 30s, has been killed in the accident. They also confirmed that three children in the car were injured and were taken to Altnagelvin Hospital in Derry.The woman’s car was in collision with a Bus Eireann bus.There are serious traffic delays in the area at the moment.The road has been closed and traffic diversions are in place. The accident comes the day after the head of the Garda Traffic Corps in Donegal, Inspector Michael Harrison, appealed to motorists to take care on Donegal’s roads over the bank holiday weekend.Tonight a Garda spokesman appealed for witnesses to the 3.30pm crash.He said: “At approximately 3.30pm a female aged in her 30s was fatally injured when the car she was driving collided with a bus on the N13 between Letterkenny and Derry near Newtowncunningham. She was pronounced dead at the scene.“Her body was removed to Letterkenny General Hospital for a post-mortem examination. Three children travelling in the car at the time were taken by ambulance to Altnagelvin Hospital in Derry. The driver of the bus was uninjured.“The road is currently closed to traffic and diversions are in place. Garda forensic collision investigators are examining the scene. “Anyone with information is asked to contact Letterkenny Garda Station 074-9167100 or the Garda Confidential Line 1800 666 111.”UPDATED: BANK HOLIDAY TRAGEDY AS WOMAN KILLED IN DONEGAL ROAD CRASH was last modified: May 4th, 2014 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)
Taking strong action in the case of sexual harassment of Class VI girl students of a government middle school in Shimla, the Elementary Education Department has dismissed the accused Physical Education teacher from government service.The teacher was found to be indulging in such activities and sexually harassing girl students for some time. He failed to improve his conduct despite repeated warnings. His action was found to be in violation of CCS (Conduct) Rules, 1964, said a spokesman.The police registered an FIR against the accused under Section 354 of the Indian Penal Code, Section 9 F of the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act.
As part of an action plan for time-bound implementation of budgetary announcements, 10,600 new classrooms will be constructed at a cost of ₹1,181 crore in Rajasthan’s government schools and the information technology infrastructure strengthened. The utilisation of budgetary allocation is set to improve quality of education in the State.Minister of State for Education Govind Singh Dostasara said here that the new classrooms would include computer rooms, science laboratories, library rooms and arts and crafts rooms. Besides, the projects for renovation of 83 school buildings and construction of 23 new buildings will be taken up this year.Mr. Dotasara said at Shiksha Sankul here that the Education Department would establish IT labs in the schools which were yet to be connected with the new communication network. “We are taking steps for ensuring a high quality of education and making available basic facilities of drinking water and toilets in the schools,” he said.The Minister said the works such as construction of boundary walls of schools would be taken up under the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, while regular monitoring would be carried out to provide all facilities to the students.
2. Archiving and Preservation ProjectsThe GRAMMY Museum Grant Program awards grants to organizations and individuals to support efforts that advance the archiving and preservation of the music and recorded sound heritage of the Americas. The Archiving and Preservation area has two funding categories. To determine under which category of preservation grant you should apply, please click here.A. Preservation Implementation: $20,000 Maximum AwardB. Assistance, Assessment and/or Consultation: $5,000 Maximum AwardReview the 2018 preservation grant guidelines and funding restrictions here.This initial approach should include the following information:1. Project contact and overview2. A brief description of the project, including but not limited to the following:– Historical significance– Uniqueness and/or at-risk status– Existing project partners and/or financial support, if any3. A description of the intended dissemination plan4. Brief biographies of key personnelFOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION – CLICK HEREDOWNLOAD THE eBOSS CANADA APPFor up-to-date News, Job Notices, Casting Notices, Events, and much more Facebook Advertisement LEAVE A REPLY Cancel replyLog in to leave a comment With funding generously provided by The Recording Academy, the GRAMMY Museum Grants Program awards grants each year to organizations and individuals to support efforts that advance the archiving and preservation of the music and recorded sound heritage of North America, and research projects related to the impact of music on the human condition.Grant funds have been utilized to preserve private collections as well as materials at the Library of Congress, the Smithsonian and numerous colleges and universities. Research projects have studied the links between music and early childhood education, treatments for illnesses and injuries common to musicians, and the impact of music therapy on populations from infants to the elderly. Over $7 million in grants have been awarded to nearly 400 recipients. The GRAMMY Museum Grant Program funds the following areas: Advertisement 1. Scientific Research Projects: $20,000 Maximum AwardThe GRAMMY Museum Grant Program awards grants to organizations and individuals to support research on the impact of music on the human condition. Examples might include the study of the effects of music on mood, cognition and healing, as well as the medical and occupational well-being of music professionals and the creative process underlying music. Priority is given to projects with strong methodological design as well those addressing an important research question.Review the 2018 research grant guidelines and funding restrictions here.This initial approach includes the following information:1. Project contact and overview2. A brief description of the project, including but not limited to the following items:– Research question– Methodology outline (number of subjects, control groups, etc.)– Impact/application of research– Existing project partners and/or financial support, if any3. A description of the intended dissemination plan of the research findings (see guidelines)4. Brief biographies of key personnelTo view a sample Scientific Research LOI please click here. Login/Register With: Advertisement Twitter
August 15, 2012 471 Views in Data, Government, Origination, Secondary Market Share Agents & Brokers Attorneys & Title Companies For-Sale Homes Home Sales Housing Permits Housing Starts Investors Lenders & Servicers National Association of Home Builders Service Providers 2012-08-15 Mark Lieberman Builder confidence improved two points in August to 37, its highest level since February 2007, the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) reported Wednesday. Economists had expected the index to remain flat at 35.The improvement in the index in August marked the fourth straight month-month gain. The overall index has gained 22 points in the last year, the largest one year gain since February 1992. The August reading also marked the third straight month the index was more than double what it had been one year earlier.The Housing Market Index (HMI), considered a measure of builder confidence, could be reflected in permits and starts data reported for August. That report from the Census Bureau, will be issued in September. Meanwhile, Census will report Thursday on permits and starts for July when builder confidence, as reported by NAHB, rose six points to 35, the strongest one-month improvement since September 2002.All three components of the index ├â┬ó├óÔÇÜ┬¼├óÔé¼┼ô the assessment of current sales, of sales six month out and traffic at showrooms and model homes ├â┬ó├óÔÇÜ┬¼├óÔé¼┼ô improved. The current sales measure rose three points to 39, its highest level since February 2007. The August gain followed a jump of five points in July. The current sales gauge is up 24 points in the last year, the last year, the strongest year-year surge since February 1992.Buyer traffic also rose three points to 31, its highest reading since May 2006. Year-year the buyer traffic index is up 20 points the largest 12-month improvement since March 1996.The index of the outlook for sales in sales months rose one point to 44, the highest level since April 2007. The six month sales outlook index has increased 25 points in the last year, the largest annual gain since January 1992.””This fourth consecutive increase in builder confidence provides further evidence of the gradual strengthening that’s occurring in many housing markets and providing a needed boost to local economies,”” said NAHB Chief Economist David Crowe. “”However, we are still at a very fragile stage of this process and builders continue to express frustration regarding the inventory of distressed properties, inaccurate appraisal values, and the difficulty of accessing credit for both building and buying homes.”” Gains in the index ├â┬ó├óÔÇÜ┬¼├óÔé¼┼ô or its components ├â┬ó├óÔÇÜ┬¼├óÔé¼┼ô do not always translate into new home sales. New home sales, for example, fell 32,000 in June to 350,000 although the HMI rose that month. The current sale measure rose in June as well but the buyer traffic index was flat. Six month earlier ├â┬ó├óÔÇÜ┬¼├óÔé¼┼ô in December ├â┬ó├óÔÇÜ┬¼├óÔé¼┼ô the outlook for sales six month ahead had improved.The index, built based on surveys conducted jointly by the NAHB and Wells Fargo, gauges builder perceptions of current single-family home sales and sales expectations for the next six months as “”good,”” “”fair”” or “”poor.”” The survey also asks builders to rate traffic of prospective buyers as “”high to very high,”” “”average”” or “”low to very low.”” Regionally, the index improved in two of the four census regions: up nine points to 42 in the Midwest and two points to 35 in the South but down nine points to 25 in the Northeast and down three points to 40 in the West. The regional confidence measures are consistent with the most recent report (for June) on new home sales which showed new home sales plunged in the Northeast.The HMI survey followed a surprisingly strong payroll report for July which showed the nation added 163,000 jobs, far what the market had been expecting but the unemployment rate rose to 8.3 percent in the same month. However recent housing specific survey such as the Case Shiller Home Price Index show improvements in home prices. Builder Confidence Soars To Five-plus Year High in August
Anthony Jewitt4K UHD TV content and channel provider Love Nature has named former Red Bull Media House executive Anthony Jewitt in the role of director of partnerships.UK-based Jewitt will oversee Blue Ant Media and Smithsonian Networks-backed Love Nature’s global SVOD and linear television distribution, excluding North America. He will also take the lead on building the business, and driving strategic initiatives, partnerships and business development. Blue Ant International will continue to manage Love Nature’s programme sales.Jewitt was previously director, affiliate sales and programming at Red Bull Media House, overseeing he global launch and distribution of Red Bull’s subscription linear TV service and the sale of Red Bull’s linear and digital programming across northern Europe.Jewitt will join the Love Nature team at the forthcoming MIPCOM market in Cannes.“Anthony brings over a decade of experience in global content distribution and partnerships to his role as Director, Partnerships,” said Jo Parkinson, managing director, Love Nature International.“By leading the charge with international affiliate relations and platform partnerships, Anthony will be a key player in Love Nature’s mission to bring our library of stunning 4K natural history content to wildlife and nature lovers across the globe.”
Explore further © 2018 AFP The blockage had left some customers stuck at the tills in stores across the continent and queueing at cash machines.”Visa cardholders can now use their Visa cards as we are currently operating at close to normal levels,” the company said in a statement. “The issue was the result of a hardware failure. We have no reason to believe this was associated with any unauthorised access or malicious event.” A spokesman told AFP earlier it was not possible to say how many Visa users across Europe had been affected.Visa users took to social media to complain and banks tried to explain the situation their customers.HSBC bank’s UK Twitter account earlier said: “From what we understand there are still intermittent issues but services are slowly recovering.”Paymentsense, which provides card machines, online payment gateways and virtual terminals to some 60,000 independent businesses in Britain and Ireland, advised users to try paying via contactless transactions.”We have been informed that Visa has corrected the outage and transactions are now starting to go through. There is still some intermittency however, we believe this is due to a backlog of transactions,” it said.”We now understand that contactless transactions have a better chance of going through.”It is understood the Bank of England is aware of the issue and is in touch with Visa.The Royal Bank of Scotland’s Twitter help account said cash machine withdrawals were unaffected.”This is an industry wide issue which is being investigated as a matter of urgency and we apologise for any inconvenience. ATM and MasterCard transactions are not impacted,” it said.Queues in shopsIn a Primark store on Berlin’s Alexanderplatz, frustrated customers were queueing for 20 minutes to pay. Staff did not know why transactions were not going through.However, in the neighbouring store, transactions were being processed without any problems.Sandra Foy, who owns a bookshop in Manchester, northwest England, told Sky News television: “I run a small business and the loss of any business is a big deal for us.”Not knowing when this is going to be sorted out is incredibly frustrating.”The BBC posted a picture of a London supermarket worker standing outside holding a sign reading: “cash only”.It cited Elle Gibbs-Murray, from Bridgend in south Wales, as saying she was stuck in traffic on the Severn Bridge between England and Wales for 45 minutes as drivers were unable to pay the toll by card.Alex Neill, Which? consumer magazine’s managing director of home products and services, said: “Clearly this issue will be a huge inconvenience to customers and it must be resolved urgently. Visa and the banks need to ensure no-one is left out of pocket due to this outage.”We strongly advise people to keep any evidence of extra expenses they’ve incurred in order to claim them back.” Payment systems giant Visa said late Friday it was “operating at close to normal levels” after a hardware failure left it struggling to process transactions in Europe. Visa users took to social media to complain of problems processing transactions in Europe Citation: Visa close to ‘normal’ after outage blocks transactions across Europe (Update) (2018, June 1) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-06-visa-outage-blocks-transactions-europe.html Visa: new technology for chip cards to speed checkout times (Update) This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
People walk past a Huawei retail shop in Shenzhen, China’s Guangdong province, Thursday, March 7, 2019. Chinese tech giant Huawei is challenging a U.S. law that labels the company a security risk and would limit its access to the American market for telecom equipment. (AP Photo/Kin Cheung) German authorities published a list of security requirements for telecoms networks Thursday, amid concerns about the possible involvement of China’s Huawei in future 5G infrastructure. The United States has been lobbying for allied countries and companies to block Huawei from providing equipment for fifth-generation cell networks, claiming it could facilitate digital espionage by the Chinese government.Germany has made clear in recent weeks that it doesn’t plan to pre-emptively exclude specific companies from bidding for contracts, but instead wants to set minimum standards that all suppliers have to meet.According to the new guidelines published by Germany’s Economic Ministry and the Federal Network Agency, systems for networks including 5G “may only be sourced from trustworthy suppliers whose compliance with national security regulations and provisions for the secrecy of telecommunications and for data protection is assured.”Other “key elements” are that network traffic “must be regularly and constantly monitored for any abnormality” and security-related components have to be certified by Germany’s IT security agency.The guidelines also stipulate that networks should use components from several manufacturers and provide for redundancy of key equipment.The agencies said companies will have an opportunity to comment on the guidelines.It is unclear whether Huawei would be able to fulfill the requirements as they currently stand, because as a Chinese company it may be compelled to provide authorities in the communist nation with access to its networks.The company this week opened a cybersecurity lab in Brussels in a bid to win over European governments and already has a similar center in Bonn, Germany.Its main rivals in the market for super-fast, 5G-network equipment are European companies Ericsson and Nokia. As US pushes to ban Huawei, UK considers softer approach (Update) © 2019 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. Citation: Germany to require suppliers of 5G networks be ‘trustworthy’ (2019, March 7) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-03-germany-require-suppliers-5g-networks.html Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
The difficulty of further increasing the power conversion efficiency of silicon-based components in power electronics seems to indicate that we are reaching the limits of potential advances to this technology. However, a research group headed by The University of Tokyo recently challenged that view by developing a power switching device that surpasses previous performance limits, illustrating that silicon technology can still be further optimized. The researchers developed an improved insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT), which is a type of switch used in power conversion to switch high voltages of around 600 to 6500 V. More information: Takuya Saraya et al. “3300V Scaled IGBTs Driven by 5V Gate Voltage,” the IEEE International Symposium on Power Semiconductor Devices and ICs, May 19-23, 2019, Shanghai, China. Citation: Remaining switched on to silicon-based electronics (2019, June 5) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-06-silicon-based-electronics.html To design their IGBT, the team used a scaling approach. Their scaling simulations revealed that downscaling part of an IGBT to a third of its original size could lower its operating voltage from 15 V to just 5 V and substantially decrease its driving power.”Our IGBT scaling approach was based on a similar concept to that used in traditional microelectronics and indicated that an IGBT with an operating voltage of 5 V should be feasible,” says Takuya Saraya. “However, we thought that a driving voltage of 5 V might be too low to surpass the unexpected noise level and ensure reliable operation.”To verify their simulation results, the researchers fabricated their IGBT with a rated voltage of 3300 V in a specialized clean room at The University of Tokyo and then assessed its performance. Notably, the IGBT achieved stable switching at an operating voltage of just 5 V. This represents the first time IGBT switching has been realized at 5 V.An IGBT that exhibits stable performance at an operating voltage of just 5 V is extremely attractive because the power consumption of the drive circuit is only around 10% of that of a conventional IGBT operating at 15 V. Power conversion efficiency is also improved despite the lowered operation voltage. Such a low operating voltage is also compatible with standard electronics processing, which will aid the integration of the IGBT drive circuits with other electronics.”IGBTs are important power electronics components,” explains Toshiro Hiramoto. “Our miniaturized IGBT could lead to the further development of advanced power electronics that are smaller and have higher power conversion efficiency.”IGBTs are found in electronics ranging from electric trains and vehicles to home stereos and air conditioners. Therefore, the improved IGBT with low driving voltage and high power conversion efficiency shows promise to raise the performance of numerous electronics, helping to mitigate modern society’s increasing energy demands. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Credit: The University of Tokyo 3-D solutions to energy savings in silicon power transistors Explore further Provided by University of Tokyo
Volkswagen to build electric vehicles at Tennessee plant Workers at VW’s Chattanooga plant rejected the attempt to unionize by 833-776 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2019 AFP Citation: US auto workers at VW plant reject bid to unionize (2019, June 15) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-06-auto-workers-vw-unionize.html The United Auto Workers union has suffered a fresh defeat at a Volkswagen plant in Tennessee, with workers narrowly voting down a move to organize the factory for a second time. Explore further The UAW has never managed to fully organize a US plant owned by a foreign manufacturer and a win at the German carmaker’s Chattanooga facility would have been a significant victory.But the 1,700-strong workforce at the factory rejected the move by a margin of 833-776 in a ballot that concluded Friday.The organizing effort was attacked by state Republicans and hampered by an ongoing federal corruption probe, with a former vice president of the auto union soon to be sentenced after pleading guilty to misappropriating funds.”Pending certification of the results by the National Labor Relations Board and a legal review of the election, Volkswagen will respect the decision of the majority,” said the carmaker’s Chattanooga plant chief Frank Fischer. “We look forward to continuing our close cooperation with elected officials and business leaders in Tennessee.”UAW organizing director Tracy Romero said the company had engineered a defeat in the vote through “fear and misinformation.””Over a period of nine weeks—an unprecedented length of time due to legal gamesmanship —Volkswagen was able to break the will of enough workers to destroy their majority,” she added.A 2014 vote to organize the factory was defeated by a 53-47 percent margin after stiff opposition from local politicians, who warned that a UAW victory would make it harder to attract new jobs to Tennessee.A smaller ballot of 160 skilled workers at the plant passed by a wide margin the next year, but Volkswagen challenged the result. Political interference and the current state of US labor laws contributed to Friday’s defeat, UAW spokesman Brian Rothenberg said.”This is a system designed to benefit corporate lawyers, not protect worker rights,” he added.
Mike Wall’s book about the search for alien life, “Out There” (Grand Central Publishing, 2018; illustrated by Karl Tate), is out now. Follow him on Twitter @michaeldwall. Follow us on Twitter @Spacedotcom or Facebook. by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeVikings: Free Online GamePlay this for 1 minute and see why everyone is addictedVikings: Free Online GameUndoMarie Claire | HanacureMeet The Beauty Equivalent To TIME’s Person Of The Year AwardMarie Claire | HanacureUndoPrimeSolarQuotesCalifornia Signs Solar Law Helping Homeowners Save Hundreds A Month.PrimeSolarQuotesUndoClassmatesSearch For Any High School Yearbook, It’s Free.ClassmatesUndoDr. Marty Nature's Feast Freeze-Dried RAW Cat Food3 Signs Something’s Wrong Inside Your Cat’s BodyDr. Marty Nature’s Feast Freeze-Dried RAW Cat FoodUndoAncestryThe Story Behind Your Last Name Will Surprise YouAncestryUndo Apollo 11 Moon Landing Giveaway with Simulation Curriculum & Celestron! Apollo 11 was truly a giant leap, but it was no miracle. On May 25, 1961, President John F. Kennedy announced before a special session of Congress that the United States planned to put people on the moon, and return them safely to Earth, before the end of the decade. At the time, the nation had a mere 15 minutes of human-spaceflight experience — and that had been accrued just three weeks earlier, when NASA launched astronaut Alan Shepard on a brief jaunt to suborbital space. Still, JFK had confidence that the agency could deliver on his bold promise.Advertisement Related: Apollo 11’s 50th Anniversary: Complete Coverage “I think he thought it could happen,” said Roger Launius, who served as NASA’s chief historian from 1990 to 2002 and wrote the recently published book “Apollo’s Legacy” (Smithsonian Books, 2019). More coverage: Watch Apollo 11 Launch on 50th AnniversaryWatch video from the NASA archives of the July 16, 1969 Apollo 11 launch. Credit: NASAVolume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Better Bug Sprays?01:33关闭选项Automated Captions – en-US facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65964-why-jfk-apollo-moonshot.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0003:4203:42Your Recommended Playlist01:33Better Bug Sprays?04:24Sperm Whale Befriends Underwater Robot00:29Robot Jumps Like a Grasshopper, Rolls Like a Ball01:08Why Do French Fries Taste So Bad When They’re Cold?02:31Surgical Robotics00:29Video – Giggly Robot关闭 JFK came to that conclusion after discussing the idea with NASA, which had already been planning for even bigger things down the road. In 1959, just a year after it was established, the space agency had identified Mars as the long-term target for its human-spaceflight program, according to space policy expert John Logsdon. By early 1961, quick-and-dirty analyses had convinced the agency that, while a crewed Red Planet mission would be tough and require significant innovation, there were no technological showstoppers that would prevent it from happening. “That formed the basis of NASA telling Kennedy, ‘If you commit the resources, Mr. President, we think we can do it [a crewed lunar landing],” Logsdon, a professor emeritus of political science and international affairs at George Washington University’s Elliott School of International Affairs in Washington, D.C., told Space.com. “So, the NASA leadership had a relatively high degree of confidence in the basic doability of a lunar-landing program, even though the way they thought it would happen at the time was not the way it happened,” he added. Getting the money, of course, was a big part of pulling the moonshot off. And JFK had a big advantage there: his vice president was Lyndon Johnson, a former majority leader of the U.S. Senate with a long history of pulling strings on Capitol Hill. (Robert Caro’s famous biography of Johnson is called “Master of the Senate.”) The 1969 goal “was doable, and, politically, Johnson had Congress lined up to support it,” Launius told Space.com. A large part of that support, of course, was rooted in a desire to best the United States’ Cold War rival, the Soviet Union. JFK’s announcement came just six weeks after the Soviets had pulled off the first-ever human spaceflight, launching Yuri Gagarin on an orbital mission (something the U.S. wouldn’t achieve until February 1962). Gagarin’s flight was the second high-profile space race victory for the U.S.S.R., which launched the first satellite, Sputnik 1, in October 1957. “In general, Kennedy felt great pressure to have the United States ‘catch up to and overtake’ the Soviet Union in the ‘space race,'” officials with the NASA history office wrote in a description of the moonshot announcement. (The May 1961 address to Congress, by the way, does not contain the line about choosing to go to the moon because it is hard. JFK said that in another speech, in September 1962 at Rice University in Houston.) Conversations with NASA chief James Webb and others convinced JFK that the U.S. perhaps had a lead over the Soviets in the nascent moon race, despite these prior setbacks, the NASA historians added. And that proved to be the case. NASA notched milestone after milestone in a stepwise fashion, working up to Apollo via the Mercury and Gemini human-spaceflight programs. The Soviets continued to beat the U.S. to the punch through the mid-1960s. For example, cosmonaut Alexei Leonov performed the first-ever spacewalk in March 1965, three months before NASA’s Ed White ventured outside his Gemini capsule. But some of these Soviet firsts were rushed, somewhat smoke-and-mirrors affairs, Launius said, and the U.S.S.R. couldn’t keep it up. The nation shot for the moon and failed; it built a huge moon rocket called the N1 but never launched it successfully. And the United States claimed the greatest space-race victory of all on July 20, 1969, when Neil Armstrong took his first small step on the lunar surface. Reading Apollo 11: The Best New Books About the Moon Landing Relive the Apollo 11 Moon Landing Mission in Real Time Photos: John F. Kennedy’s NASA Legacy JFK’s ‘Moon Speech’ Still Resonates 50 Years Later Space Race: Could the U.S. Have Beaten the Soviets Into Space?